Diseases & Management

Neurotrophic Keratopathy : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Management

Neurotrophic keratopathy (NK), Neurotrophic keratitis or Trigeminal neuropathic keratopathy is a rare degenerative corneal disease. It is characterised by lack of or decreased corneal sensation, corneal epithelial breakdown and impaired healing, resulting into increased susceptibility of the corneal surface to injury and compromised healing. In severe cases this can lead to stromal melting, corneal ulceration […]

Neonatal Conjunctivitis : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Management

Neonatal conjunctivitis (Ophthalmia neonatorum) is defined as a conjunctival inflammation that occurs during first month of life after birth. Various causes have been implicated such as bacterial, viral including chemical conjunctivitis. Complications may be mild such as hyperaemia with scant conjunctival discharge to permanent scarring leading to even blindness. Neonatal conjunctivitis may be septic or […]

Neuralgia : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Management

Neuralgia is pain in one or more nerves caused by a change in neurological structure or function of the nerves rather than by excitation of healthy pain receptors. Types of trigeminal neuralgia Trigeminal neuralgia can be divided into different categories depending on the type of pain. These are described below. Trigeminal neuralgia type 1 (TN1) […]

Neonatal Respiratory Disease Syndrome(NRDS) : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Management and Complications

It is also called as Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS). It is a serious medical condition where a newborn baby’s lungs cannot provide their body with enough oxygen. NRDS is also known as hyaline membrane disease, infant respiratory distress syndrome or newborn respiratory distress syndrome. IRDS begins shortly after birth and is manifest by tachypnea, […]

Nasal Polyps : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Management

Nasal polyps are polypoidal masses arising mainly from the mucous membranes of the nose and paranasal sinuses. They are overgrowths of the mucosa that frequently accompany allergic rhinitis. They are freely movable and non tender. Nasal polyps are abnormal tissue growths that grow inside the nasal passages and sinuses. Sinuses are small, air-filled cavities found […]

Narcolepsy : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Management

Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder caused by the brain’s inability to regulate sleep-wake cycles. It is a disorder in which a person falls asleep at inappropriate times. People with narcolepsy generally experience disturbed nocturnal sleep and an abnormal daytime sleep pattern, which is often confused with insomnia. Narcoleptics, when falling asleep, generally experience the REM […]

Madarosis : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Management

Madarosis is defined as the loss or absence of eyelashes (ciliary madarosis) or eyebrows (superciliary madarosis) or both. The term madarosis was originally coined to denote loss of eyelashes due to destruction of hair follicles. But now, this term encompasses loss of cilia either of eyelashes or eyebrows or both. Loss of eyelashes is also […]

Mumps : Symptoms, Causes , Diagnosis & Management.

Mumps is a viral infection and most often a mild disease of childhood. It affects children between five and nine years of age. However, the mumps can affect both adolescents and adults. Mumps virus is present throughout the world. It spreads by airborne droplets released when an infected person sneezes or coughs and by direct […]